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Analysis of Laser Processing Technology in Automobile Industry


The use of laser through the interaction with the material, according to certain requirements of the processing or molding, collectively referred to as light manufacturing. Nearly 20 years, light manufacturing technology has penetrated into the high-tech fields and industries, and began to replace or transform some of the traditional processing industry. In the developed countries of the automotive industry, 50% -70% of the parts is completed by laser processing. Light manufacturing technology to improve the automotive industry R & D and manufacturing level, is playing an increasingly important role.

First, the characteristics of light manufacturing technology
At present, the light source used in the light manufacturing technology is mainly laser, the laser beam has the characteristics of high energy density, high single-palladium and high directivity, which makes the optical manufacturing technology has many advantages over the traditional manufacturing technology. The tool used in this technology is the "laser knife", no tool wear during machining; no effect of cutting force on the workpiece during machining, so the workpiece without cold processing deformation; due to high energy injection processing time, the workpiece heat is small, The laser has good spatial control (direction change, rotation, scanning, etc.) and time control (opening) of the laser beam, which can not be processed by the conventional technology, which can be close to or reach the "cold" , Off, pulse interval), particularly suitable for automated processing, large-scale manufacturing in the production of high efficiency; laser processing of the object material, shape, size and processing environment are great freedom; low noise, does not produce harmful rays and Residue, the production process of environmental pollution is small; can save molds, shorten product development cycle and reduce development costs; material waste, in large-scale production of low manufacturing costs.
Second, the automotive industry in the category of light manufacturing technology
Light manufacturing technology in the automotive industry can be divided into light "cold" processing, light "heat" processing, light rapid prototyping three categories.
1. Light "cold" processing technology
Laser manufacturing, laser drilling, laser marking and laser cutting are the key technologies for light manufacturing.
No cutting stress, no cutting burr; high precision, good repeatability, do not damage the surface of the workpiece. The cutting edge is smooth, smooth cutting edge, cutting edge parallelism, no procurement follow-up processing;
Laser drilling speed, high efficiency, suitable for large quantities of high-density processing of the group hole; laser drilling can get a large aspect ratio can be hard, brittle, soft and other materials for processing, and even in the Difficult to process materials on the inclined plane processing holes; laser drilling process clean, non-polluting.
Laser marking is a non-contact marking, fast, easy to wear mark, laser marking machine and very easy to combine with the assembly line.
Laser cutting is similar to machining in a process of milling, it is the use of focused laser beam to cut the material layer by layer.
2. Light "hot" processing technology
Corresponding with the conventional thermal processing technology of optical manufacturing technology laser welding, laser surface hardening, laser welding and alloying.
Laser welding is the use of high-intensity laser beam will be welded to the local melting temperature of molten metal fusion welded joints made of the process. Can weld high-melting point metal, non-metal, composite materials and other special materials, but also to achieve dissimilar materials welding and welding of special structures; weld with "self-purification" effect, weld quality; can be accurate welding, generally do not need Filling the metal; through the light guide system so that the laser beam and a number of devices constitute a flexible processing system, a high degree of automation welding, high productivity; in high-energy beam welding, laser welding is characterized by the largest vacuum chamber does not produce x-ray .
Laser surface hardening is divided into two laser hardening and laser hardening. Laser phase transformation hardening, also known as laser quenching, it is a high-energy laser beam rapid scanning of the workpiece, so that the metal or alloy is irradiated surface temperature is extremely high speed to phase point above the laser beam from the irradiated parts, Due to heat conduction, in the cold state of the matrix to rapidly cooling and self-quenching, get a smaller layer of hardened layer, the hardness is generally higher than the conventional quenching hardness; laser melting hardening process similar to the previous process, the difference is that the laser The surface of the material heating temperature is higher, the final part of the surface to form a layer of tissue flame hardening layer.
Laser welding is the use of high-energy laser beam irradiation of the cladding material, with the substrate surface layer with rapid melting, forming with the substrate metallurgy with completely different composition and performance of the alloy coating.
3. Light rapid prototyping technology
Light rapid prototyping technology principle is under the control of the computer, CAD and other parts of the design model and data, the laser beam will be forming material layer by layer curing, from the point and line structure parts of the surface (layer), the surface accurate accumulation of three-dimensional Solid model or part of the process. The use of light rapid prototyping technology can significantly shorten the product development cycle, greatly reduce development costs, can quickly produce products to adapt to market changes, maintain and enhance the competitiveness of products in the market. At the same time, the use of optical rapid prototyping technology is also to achieve concurrent engineering and agile manufacturing effective technical approach.
In the new century, the automotive industry is entering the stage of flexible production according to user requirements of flexible manufacturing stage, the automotive industry has emerged flexible modular production methods, the modern automotive industry is also toward the direction of high technology, automotive technology is experiencing by the The Transformation from Traditional Mechanical Manufacturing Technology to Advanced Manufacturing Technology. Light manufacturing technology for automotive development and manufacturing into a dynamic. Can be expected, this century, light manufacturing technology in the automotive industry in the rapid development of the application will become an important processing method of the automotive industry.